About the ANSI Incorporated by Reference (IBR) Portal
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Incorporated by Reference (IBR) Portal provides a one-stop mechanism for access to standards that have been incorporated by reference in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). These standards incorporated by the U.S. government in rulemakings are offered at no cost in “read only” format and are presented for online reading. There are no print or download options.
Standards available on the ANSI IBR Portal include those developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO),
the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and other standards developing organizations (SDOs) that have signed a terms and conditions agreement with
ANSI. To access the standards in PDF format, go to the IBR Standards tab above. All users will be required to install the FileOpen plug-in and accept an online end user
license agreement prior to accessing any standards.
In addition to the standards available directly through the portal, several SDOs are offering free access via their own website; links are provided in the IBR Standards tab above.
Important information about access to standards included on this ANSI portal
What is a standard?
A standard is a document that provides requirements, specifications, guidelines, or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products,
processes, and services are fit for their purpose.
Who writes standards?
Many standards are written by standards developing organizations (SDOs). SDOs provide the administrative, technical, and other support for experts to come together
and figure out the best technical solution to a problem.
Are standards copyright protected?
Yes, every standard is a work of authorship. Under U.S. and international law, a standard is copyright protected, giving the owner – in this case the SDO –
certain rights of control and remuneration that cannot be taken away without just compensation.
Why do SDOs charge for standards?
SDOs are usually not-for-profit organizations that bring together the relevant technical experts and other stakeholders in a particular industry or
technical area and manage the administrative and organizational requirements to develop effective standards. In order to recoup their costs, many SDOs rely heavily on
revenue from copyright-protected sales and licensing of the standards they develop.
What does it mean for a standard to be “incorporated by reference”?
Sometimes laws – like the Code of Federal Regulations – make reference to standards and require that those standards be followed. This, in turn, may require that they
be made “reasonably available” to persons who are affected by the law.
If standards are incorporated by reference (IBR-ed), do they lose their copyright?
No. Standards do not lose their copyright protection just by being referenced, and they can be made reasonably available in a number of different ways. For example,
some SDOs make certain IBR-ed standards available on an online, read-only site – like this one. And many other SDOs make standards available at reasonable prices, at
discounts, or without charge to consumers, policymakers, and small businesses. There is not one single way to make standards reasonably available.
Why is ANSI giving read-only access to the standards contained in this portal?
ANSI is providing access because some SDOs wishing to make their IBR-ed standards available on a read-only basis asked ANSI to include their standards in a single place to
make it easier for those seeking to view their standards.
Does this portal include all IBR-ed standards?
No, it includes certain IBR-ed standards developed by ISO and IEC, as well as a number of other SDOs. There are many other IBR-ed standards not included on this site.
Some SDOs choose to make their standards available on their own websites and others chose not to make their IBR-ed standards available on a read-only basis at all, but
provide reasonable access through some other means. Click the IBR Standards tab above to see the most current list of the SDOs that either make their standards available through
this site, or have agreed to provide a link to where standards are hosted on their own site.
Can the standards on this portal be downloaded?
This portal is on an online, read-only site allowing members of the public to have access to, on a limited basis, copies of materials incorporated by reference into regulation. While the standards are downloaded to your computer, they are locked to that computer so they cannot be copied and moved to any other device.
Can the standards on this portal be printed? Can I copy and paste text from the standards?
No, you cannot print or copy and paste text from any of these read-only standards.
Are the standards included in this portal the most up-to-date versions of the standards?
Not always. In fact, ANSI cautions the user of this portal that the standards included here are the versions that have been IBR-ed in the respective federal regulation or
law and may not be the most recent or up-to-date version available. It is possible that the standard has changed or been updated during the period of time since the
regulation or law was enacted. ANSI does not control which standards and versions are referenced in federal regulations or laws.
Where can I buy these or other standards?
Many are available at webstore.ansi.org.